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High spectral resolution has several benefits. In , the U. HICO had a spectral resolution of 5. High spectral resolution also enables algorithm development and the synthetic spectral reconstruction of different satellite sensor bands e. High spectral resolution is also required to separate aquatic constituents by their light absorption, scattering, and fluorescence characteristics PACE SDT Other derived products include CDOM and sediment concentration.

Additional EBVs of interest that may be derived from high spatial and spectral resolution data are coral, macrophyte, and wetland extent Fig. Atmospheric correction should also incorporate procedures to evaluate and correct sun glint e. These requirements are more critical at higher latitudes due to lower sun angles Dekker and Pinnel The SNR of such sensors can be improved by aggregating pixels and degrading spatial resolution. Because of the very high dynamic range of reflected radiances across the spectrum from different coastal aquatic habitats, there is no typical radiance to use as a standard to define a SNR specification.

This wide range of radiances reflected by coastal habitats, from very dark to very bright, requires the highest sensitivity possible. We therefore recommend SNR above based on signal levels typical of the open ocean. All spectral bands of a scene should be registered simultaneously. Sustained calibration needs to include frequent observations of the Moon e.

Observations at frequencies of hours to days are required to measure changes in the distribution of planktonic organisms due to tidal or other circulation, phenology, or change in community structure. While the biodiversity of some structured communities like coral reefs, sea grass meadows, or mangrove forests may be expected to change more slowly, disturbance due to pollution events, severe storms, or cold or warm temperature extremes can lead to rapid changes in organism distribution, traits e.

Furthermore, the geostationary mission would not cover high latitude areas, and more than one satellite would be required to observe other areas around the world. Therefore, since the capability does not exist elsewhere, temporal resolution on the order of hours to days, in conjunction with the other H4 specifications, is required to adequately observe coastal zones.

Similar treaties address the conservation of major freshwater bodies, such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Implementing a global H4 observation system is within reach. Broadening the swath would reduce the number of sensors required. Small satellite constellations are now common for a variety of applications. Operational resource management efforts, and an obligation to evaluate changes occurring over decadal and longer timeframes, also would require sustaining H4 over longer periods, similar to those provided by Landsat and other operational satellite series.

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The H4 observations would complement such operational satellites. There are several strategies to increase the SNR for observations of coastal aquatic habitats and of biologically structured habitats. A separate strategy is to alter the platform or sensor motion to scan aquatic targets slower than land or wetland targets e. The H4 concept also poses challenges with respect to data downlink, management, processing, and distribution.

We can learn important lessons from these initiatives. The combined open ocean, coastal, and wetland H4 observation strategy will revolutionize applied ecological research.

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A global H4 observation strategy would also provide coverage of land and fresh water habitats. This manuscript is a contribution to the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network. The manuscript has been reviewed by the National Exposure Research Laboratory of the Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. We appreciate the very thorough and constructive comments of the anonymous reviewers, and from Dr. David Schimel, our editor at Ecological Applications. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the U.

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of U. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Satellite-based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae.

These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables EBVs , including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation.

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However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. An agile satellite in a 3-d repeat low-Earth orbit could sample km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article.

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Ecol Appl. Published online Mar 6.

Hyper Spectral Imaging

PMID: Frank E. Roberts , 4 David Siegel , 4 Robert J. Franz , 11 Nima Pahlevan , 11 , 12 Antonio G. Mannino , 11 Javier A. Concha , 11 Steven G. Ackleson , 13 Kyle C. Rousseaux , 19 John Dunne , 20 Matthew C. Long , 21 Eduardo Klein , 22 Galen A. Sosik , 34 Raphael Kudela , 35 Colleen B. Mouw , 36 Andrew H. Drakou , 40 Ward Appeltans , 41 and Walter Jetz Dar A.

Robert J. Arnold G. Blake Schaeffer 10 U. Bryan A.

Antonio G. Javier A. Steven G.

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Kyle C. Emmanuel S. Cecile S. Matthew C.

Annotated Bibliography Developed for the Graduate Level Introductory GIS Classes Taught at EPA

Galen A. Kevin R. Frank W.

Heidi M. Colleen B. Andrew H. Evangelia G.