- Manual Reason in the City of Difference (Questioning Cities).
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- 2.1. Approaches to Sociological Research.
- Chapter 2. Sociological Research – Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition;
As pointed out above Rule 3 , an adverbial clause that begins a sentence is set off with a comma: Although Queasybreath had spent several years in Antarctica, he still bundled up warmly in the brisk autumns of Ohio. Because Tashonda had learned to study by herself, she was able to pass the entrance exam.
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When an adverbial clause comes later on in the sentence, however, the writer must determine if the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence or not. A "because clause" can be particularly troublesome in this regard. In most sentences, a "because clause" is essential to the meaning of the sentence, and it will not be set off with a comma: The Okies had to leave their farms in the midwest because the drought conditions had ruined their farms.
Sometimes, though, the "because clause" must be set off with a comma to avoid misreading: I knew that President Nixon would resign that morning, because my sister-in-law worked in the White House and she called me with the news. The file will be sent to your Kindle account.
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Read PDF Reason in the City of Difference (Questioning Cities)
Maybe, but it depends on what metric you use to measure economic growth. Did lower unemployment rates lead to lower crime rates? What about income growth? Some researchers theorize that greater opportunity for legal income reduces the need for illegal sources of it.
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The national unemployment rate nearly doubled after the crash, peaking at 10 percent in October , and median household income plunged. But crime rates not only failed to spike in response, they actually reached a year low in Another national trend must have played a role, then. Maybe the decrease in alcohol consumption over the last few decades had an effect. How closely related are alcohol and crime?
The National Bureau of Economic Research found correlations between its consumption and aggravated assault, rape, and some types of theft. Americans only drank slightly less beer, the most common form of alcohol consumption at that time, between and But it was enough for the Brennan Center to attribute to it a 7. World Health Organization data show the average American drinks slightly less alcohol each year compared to the average Canadian or European.
Yet violent crime rates in the U. Why the disparity? The United States imprisons more people than anywhere else in the world, both in relative and total numbers.
It seems logical that fewer criminals are on the streets as a result of tough-on-crime policies from that era. Reasonable as it might sound, the research turns out to be far less conclusive.
40 FCE Speaking Part 4 Questions (with model answers)
A panel from the National Academy of Sciences looked at the existing research for its landmark report on the American prison system. The panel also found little indication of a deterrent effect.
Most offenders reach a point when they age out of criminal behavior, limiting the utility of mandatory minimum sentencing. Some research even suggests harsh prison conditions could make inmates more likely to reoffend. Mass incarceration came with ruinous consequences for communities of color and American society as a whole.