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  • Localization, translation, and distribution.

Deals and Shenanigans. Ring Smart Home Security Systems. PillPack Pharmacy Simplified. What are the effects of different methods of teaching and learning? Why do translators find some things easy to translate, yet others difficult? How can meaning be assigned to target situations and source texts? Are there any universal elements to thought processes which remain the same across different cultures and serve as a basis for translation? Applied research can address, for example, the following questions: What can be done in the production process to make texts understandable?


The Moving Text: Localization, Translation, and Distribution (Benjamins Translation Library, 49)

How should translators organize their work? Modern cognitive scientists and cognitive science methods often have their roots in psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, and neuroscience. All these disciplines bring their own methodological traditions and competences to the study of cognition. At the same time, defining professionalism and expertise in an operationalizable manner has become one of the current themes in cognitive translation studies. After all, as situated and constructivist approaches to cognition show see below , the social and cognitive perspectives are intertwined: the possibility of assuming the role of a professional in a production network facilitates and enables the acquisition and implementation of the expertise needed for the task Kiraly, ; Risku, , Technology has often provided a framework for new scientific models.

For example, the development of the models used in the cognitive approaches to translation has been oriented on the computer metaphor translation as information processing and symbol manipulation since the s, on the neuronal network metaphor connectionist models of translation since the s, and on the social networks metaphor social constructivist and situated translation since the s. The summary of the development of the cognitive approaches to translation provided below uses these as a framework: information processing translation as code switching and symbol manipulation ,.

In the early days of translation and communication studies, the telephone or coding and recoding in different linguistic systems served as an explanatory model Jakobson, ; Kade, ; Koller, According to this classic model, translators work like code switchers: they replace the elements and rules in one coding system with the elements and rules of another Wilss, , p.

Once a person has learned a language system and its corresponding elements and rules in another language system, they can basically rely on their own dexterity and proficiency—a bit like a machine e. However, this model proved to be too simplistic: sense and meaning cannot be primarily or exclusively explained through reaction to stimuli or by decoding symbols. If the brain works like a computer rather than a telephone—an assumption that takes us into the domain of modern cognitive science—translation is still a matter of codes, rules, and uncovering the binding function of the text, but in a far more subtle sense.

Localization, translation, and distribution

According to this principle, people of all cultures think with the help of the same language structure language of thought , which we use when translating. Different languages are merely surface phenomena which can be associated back to the basic rules, and thus to their meaning, using syntactic analysis. If all perception and understanding is a coding in internal symbols, and all thinking is an operation of these symbols, translation is also a kind of—albeit complicated—computer program.

Equivalence theory approaches to translation imply a corresponding picture of translation as the comparison of linguistic and cultural systems. For example, semantic networks provide a method of systematically structuring and comparing meaning by means of symbol and concept systems based on shared properties. According to these approaches, the relevant properties, concept networks, and linguistic conventions used in different cultures lay the basis for translation as information processing and linguistic transfer.

Even the smallest change in the task or system causes the model to break down—while humans are able to master and understand even incomplete and grammatically incorrect information with apparent ease. Drawing on Lakoff , p. Depending on our culture and situation, we categorize differently and judge certain objects to be more representative than others. Instead, humans associate it with the species they are most familiar with or which is most prevalent in their society, thus instantaneously associating it with an individual and, at the same time, culturally dependent world of colors, sounds, and movement.

Consequently, our understanding of a text necessarily depends on our nonlinguistic presuppositions and preconceptions. These units are referred to, for example, as frames, scripts, schemas, scenes, or scenarios.

Walter Benjamin – Trans(ference/lation/ition)

All of these approaches are based on the assumption that the world knowledge gained through individual experience plays a dominant role in thinking, understanding, and learning. Thus, all understanding is initially based on a contextual interpretation of our own patterns of thought.

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  7. We don't begin to understand and produce texts when we read the first words they contain, we begin to do so when we activate our understanding of the particular situation, which leads us to expect certain types of texts and content. Translators can therefore never re produce, they offer possibilities for new constructions of meaning. The scheme theory model served to explain the emotional, flexible, contextual, creative, and constructive sides to translation.

    Translators, it would seem, do not simply process symbolic information based on a set of rules, they construct meaning in concrete situations. In doing so, they draw on their own experiential meaning, i.