Depending on the respective context of cell death, the triggering factors and the mechanisms substantially differ. On the contrary, abiotic stress conditions affect usually multiple tissues and organs simultaneously. The programmed death of certain cells probably primarily serves to maintain physiological and genetic integrity and to ensure the survival of the whole plant.
The response of plant cells to various triggers thus probably depends on both their differentiation state and their position in the cell cycle, similar to the situation known from animals. Whereas only fragmentary data are available for dividing plant cells, the induction of PCD in animal cells was described in detail in the context of a sophisticated system of cell cycle checkpoints, which predominantly serve to prevent cancer transformation and uncontrolled proliferation of the cells Francis It is technically very difficult to study the causal connections between cell cycle and PCD directly in meristematic plant tissues, because only a small population of cells divides, and because these divisions are asynchronous.
The relationship between cell death and cell cycle progression has been studied in two different experimental systems and in response to different inducers, such that the results are hardly comparable. The authors suggested that this result reflected a natural suppression of hypersensitive cell death in dividing cells, such as meristems, in planta. We observed that incidence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, an indicative marker of apoptotic PCD, strongly depended on the phase of the cell cycle, in which cadmium was applied. Simultaneous suppression of PCD in differentiated cells might, on the other hand, support survival of the whole plant body.
At least cells were counted in each of three replicate slides per sampling time. After treatment with a blocking solution 0. At least cells were counted immediately after addition of FDA in triplicate per sampling time. The integrity of DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis in 1. Whereas the stationary cells died without typical features of PCD becoming manifest, a significant portion of the dividing exponential phase cells clearly exhibited different PCD symptoms after several days of the treatment, such as fragmented nuclei and fragmented DNA as detected by TUNEL reaction data not shown or DNA electrophoresis Fig.
The arrows indicate specific DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal fragments.
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M, molecular mass marker. Application of cadmium in early G1 phase at In contrast, the cadmium treatment administered during G2 phase Fig. The fastest response to cadmium was detected in the cells treated in M phase Fig.
The cell cycle phase of cadmium application clearly influenced the speed of the viability decrease Fig. However, the morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics of this death response differed specifically depending on the phase of cell cycle when cadmium had been applied.
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To analyse the character of the cell death induced by cadmium that was applied in different phases of cell cycle, two different techniques were applied to detect DNA fragmentation; TUNEL reaction and electrophoretic detection of DNA laddering. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to study the character of DNA fragmentation in the cell populations; the results supported the finding obtained by the TUNEL reaction: no DNA fragmentation was observed in untreated synchronized control cells Fig.
The specific DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal fragments was observed in the cell culture with cadmium applied in the S phase Fig.
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The arrows indicate the specific DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal fragments. In contrast to interphasic nuclei either rounded or prolonged, with the latter often observed after synchronization with both APC and HU; Fig. However, the MI peak reached higher values after APC treatment, which might be erroneously interpreted as better synchronization. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , , s. Rivero, F.
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- Tobacco BY-2 Cells: From Cellular Dynamics to Omics?
The tobacco BY-2 cell system is a unique model cell line for the study of dynamic features of plant cells. See details. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. It represents an ext- sion of the previous book Tobacco BY-2 Cells, vol.